There are almost as many pet cats as dogs in Australia. Increasingly, with improved nutrition, health care and management changes, more and more of these cats are living to greater ages. In America, over the last ten years there has been a 15% increase in cats over 10 years of age and the proportion of the feline population aged 15 years or older has increased from 5% to 14%. From this we can see that elderly cats form an ever increasing group of animals that need to be cared for.
With advancing age body functions change.
As cats age all of their body systems are affected:
Reduction in exercise may result in reduced muscle tone, which may further reduce the cat’s ability to jump, climb or exercise. There may also be a stiffening of the joints because of chronic degenerative joint damage.
When coupled with a reduced metabolic rate (common in older individuals), lack of exercise can result in a fall in energy requirements of up to 40%. If a cat maintains a good appetite its daily food intake must therefore be reduced to prevent excessive weight gain.
Most specific nutrient requirements are not yet determined for older cats. However, it is often assumed that older cats have some degree of subclinical (underlying) disease, particularly of the kidneys, hence a diet with moderate protein restriction is usually recommended. For the same reason it is often suggested that mild phosphorus restriction may be beneficial.
With advancing age medication must be given with ever increasing care.
Changes in physiology not only affect food absorption, they also affect the way many drugs are metabolised. Liver and kidney disease occur commonly in older cats. When coupled with mild dehydration these can result in reduced clearance rates and marked elevations in drug concentrations circulating within the blood. When treating geriatric patients the dose and dosing intervals of some drugs may therefore need to be altered.
Although little is yet known about the feline immune system, it is generally assumed that with age immune function may deteriorate. This may in turn result in a reduced ability to fight infection or screen for neoplastic (cancer) cells. Regular booster vaccinations are generally recommended and prompt treatment of disease is essential.
This is something you should discuss with your vet. There is no simple answer to this question; it depends on whether the treatment may lead to a cure, or whether it is aimed at controlling clinical signs. It also depends on how ill the cat is, and on how distressing it finds the disease for which it is being treated. Older cats are often poorly tolerant of excessive physical handling or environmental change, so while veterinary medicine may be able to offer complex therapeutic options, it is important that each case be assessed individually. Treatment should not be attempted where it will be poorly tolerated for medical or temperamental reasons. Once the patient’s quality of life can no longer be maintained it is important that euthanasia is performed as compassionately as possible, in order to prevent the cat from suffering.
The major diseases seen in older cats are hormonal disorders (such as hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus), kidney disease, neoplasia (cancer), infections periodontal disease and arthritis. However, older cats can also be affected by diseases more commonly seen in younger animals (such as inflammatory bowel disease), and road traffic accidents.
It is important to remember that while young animals usually have only one disorder at a time, this is often not so in older patients, where diagnosis and treatment may be complicated by the concurrence of multiple interacting disease processes.
While it is true to say that ‘old age is not a disease’, it is important that we pay particular attention to our older cats, so that if they do develop disease we can recognise it, and treat it early, and so maintain their quality of life for as long as possible.
Most cats age gracefully and require few changes to their general regimen. Since older cats do not generally respond well to change, if changes must be made it is important they are introduced slowly.
Elderly cats should have easy access to a warm, draught-free bed, situated where the cat can sleep safely without fear of disturbance.
It is advisable to feed older cats on a highly palatable, possibly reduced protein diet, with a high water content. They should always have easy access to fresh drinking water. Regular raw meaty bones and/or regular veterinary dentistry are required to maintain dental hygeine.
As cats’ age some show a reduced ability to control urination and the passing of bowel motions. To reduce the risk of ‘accidents’ it may therefore be necessary to allow access to an indoor litter box.
Older cats should have regular health checks.